ERG 290: U.S. Climate Policy, Law, and Politics
UC-Berkeley, Spring 2015 | Tuesdays / Thursday, 3:30 - 5:00pm
Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Room 310

Instructor:
Danny Cullenward (dcullenward@berkeley.edu
Office hours: Tuesdays, 1:00pm to 3:00pm, Sutardja Dai Hall, room 452

GSI:
Dan Sanchez (sanchezd@berkeley.edu)
Office hours: Wednesday, 10:00am to 12:00pm, Sutardja Dai Hall, fourth floor desks

PART I: Introduction and Context

Tuesday, January 20 – International Climate Policy

  • United Nations, FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1, Decision 2/CP.15, pp. 4-9 (Copenhagen Accord) (link).
  • United Nations, FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1, Decision 2/CP.15 (Copenhagen Accord), Appendix I: Quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020 (link).
    Skim the commitments, paying close attention to the U.S. target.
  • U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change (Nov. 12, 2014) (link).
  • IPCC Working Group III, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers (2014) (link).

Thursday, January 22 – The 2°C Limit (Dan Sanchez)

  • Malte Meinshausen et al., Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C, 458 Nature 1158-63 (2009) (link).
  • Michael E. Mann, Defining dangerous anthropogenic interference, 106 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 4065-66 (2009) (link).
  • Jonathan G. Koomey, Moving beyond benefit-cost analysis of climate change, 8 Environmental Research Letters 041005 (2013) (link).
  • David G. Victor and Charles F. Kennel, Ditch the 2°C Warming Goal, 514 Nature 30-31 (2014) (link).
  • Stefan Rahmstorf, Limiting global warming to 2°C – why Victor and Kennel are wrong, RealClimate.org (Oct. 1, 2014) (link).

Tuesday, January 27 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 1990-2012, Executive Summary (link).
  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2013 (link).
    Spend a long time looking at this chart. How are different energy resources used? For electricity, or directly by one or more end-use sectors? How efficient is the flow of energy? 
  • For those who are new to studying energy systems, please also read: 
    Arnulf Grübler et al., Chapter 1: Energy Primer, in Global Energy Assessment (IIASA, 2012) (link).

Thursday, January 29 – Climate Policy Instruments

  • Lawrence H. Goulder and Andrew Schein, Carbon Taxes vs. Cap and Trade: A Critical Review, 4(3) Climate Change Economics 1350010 (2014) (link).
  • Ann E. Carlson, Designing Effective Climate Policy: Cap-and-Trade and Complementary Policies, 49 Harvard Journal on Legislation 207 (2012) (link).

Tuesday, February 3 – Emissions Trading

  • Richard Schmalensee and Robert Stavins, The SO2 Allowance Trading System: The Ironic History of a Grand Policy Experiment, 27(1) Journal of Economic Perspectives 103-22 (2013) (link).
  • Lawrence H. Goulder, Markets for Pollution Allowances: What Are the (New) Lessons?, 27(1) Journal of Economic Perspectives 87-102 (2013) (link).
  • David G. Victor, Joshua C. House, and Sarah Joy, A Madisonian Approach to Climate Policy, 309 Science 1820-21 (link).  

PART II: State Policy

Thursday, February 5 – California Climate Policy: Vehicles

  • Clean Air Act § 209, State Standards (Title II), 42 U.S.C. § 7543 (link).
  • A.B. 1493, Vehicular emissions: greenhouse gases (Pavley) (link).
    Skim the entire document; focus on Section 3.
  • Cal. Code Regulations, Title 13, Division 3, Chapter 1, Article 2, § 1961.1 (link).
    Skim the document, focus on the tables.
  • Central Valley Chrysler-Jeep, Inc. v. Goldstene, 529 F. Supp. 2d 1151 (E.D. Cal. 2007) (PDF).

Tuesday, February 10 – California Climate Policy: SB 1368 and AB 32

  •  S.B. 1368, The Emissions Performance Standard (link).
    Skim the entire document; focus on Section 8341(d)(1).
  • A.B. 32, The Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (Pavley) (link).
  • Executive Order S-3-05 (Cal. Gov. Schwarzenegger) (June 2005) (link) (PDF).
  • California Air Resources Board, Climate Change Scoping Plan (December 2008) (link).
    Read pp. 1-24 (Executive Summary and the first part of Section II). 
  • Michael Wara, California’s energy and climate policy: A full plate, but perhaps not a full model, 70(5) Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 26-34 (2014) (link).

Thursday, February 12 – California Climate Policy: Early Litigation

  • Association of Irritated Residents v. CARB, 206 Cal. App. 4th 1487 (Cal. Ct. App. 2012) (PDF).
  • POET, LLC v. CARB, 218 Cal. App. 4th 681 (Cal. Ct. App. 2013) (PDF).

Tuesday, February 17 – The Dormant Commerce Clause: California's LCFS

  • U.S. Constitution, Art. I § 8, clause 3 (link).
  • Rocky Mountain Farmers Union v. Corey, 730 F.3d 1070 (9th Cir. 2013), cert. denied 134 S.Ct. 2875 (June 30, 2014) (PDF).
    Read Appendix One first to familiarize yourself with the LCFS lookup table (a.k.a. "Table 6"). 

Thursday, February 19 – The Social Cost of Carbon (Dan Sanchez)
Note: this is a federal policy topic—Danny is out of town so Dan is taking over today.

  • Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Carbon, Technical Support Document: Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866 (February 2010) (link).
  • Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Carbon, Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866 (November2013) (link).
    Note the new numbers on p. 3. If you are interested, read the rest. 
  • Frances C. Moore and Delavane B. Diaz, Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy, forthcoming in Nature Climate Change (2015) (link).
  • David Roberts, How much is climate change going to cost us? Grist.org (Jan. 26, 2015) (link).

Tuesday, February 24 – The Dormant Commerce Clause: Other State Energy Policies

  • Energy and Environmental Legal Institute v. Epel, — F. Supp. 2d — (D. Colo. 2014) (PDF).
  • North Dakota v. Heydinger, 15 F. Supp. 3d 891 (D. Minn. 2014) (PDF).

Thursday, February 26 – Introduction to Carbon Markets

  • World Bank, Infographic: Carbon Markets of the World (2014) (link).
  • A. Denny Ellerman, Claudio Marcantonini, and Aleksander Zaklan, The EU ETS: Eight Years and Counting, European University Working Paper RSCAS 2014/04 (2014) (link).
  • Michael Wara, Is the Global Carbon Market Working?, 445 Nature 595-96 (2007) (link).

Tuesday, March 3 – Carbon Markets, Continued

  • Richard G. Newell, William A. Pizer, and Daniel Raimi, Carbon Markets 15 Years After Kyoto: Lessons Learned, New Challenges, 27(1) Journal of Economic Perspectives 123-46 (2013) (link).
  • Richard G. Newell, William A. Pizer, and Daniel Raimi, Carbon Market Lessons and Global Policy Outlook, 343 Science 1316, 1316-17 (2014) (link).
  • Danny Cullenward and Michael Wara, Carbon markets: Effective policy?, 344 Science 1460 (2014) (link).
  • Richard G. Newell, William A. Pizer, and Daniel Raimi, Carbon markets: Effective policy?—Response, 344 Science 1461 (2014) (link).

Thursday, March 5 – The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)

  • Jonathan L. Ramseur, The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers, Congressional Research Service Report #R41836 (November 2014) (link).
  • Bruce R. Huber, How Did RGGI Do It? Political Economy and Emissions Auctions, 40 Ecology Law Quarterly 59, 83-105 (2013) (link).
    You only need to read Part II, pp. 83-105. 
  • In re Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Superior Ct. N.J., 2014 WL 1228509 (March 25, 2014) (per curiam) (PDF).

Tuesday, March 10 – California's Carbon Market

  • California Air Resources Board, Overview of ARB Emissions Trading Program (link).
  • Our Children's Earth Foundation v. CARB, — Cal. Rptr. 3d — (Cal. Ct. App. 2015) (PDF).

Thursday, March 12 – California's Carbon Market: Revenue Use

  • California Chamber of Commerce v. CARB, Sacramento Superior Court, Case No. 34-2012-80001313 (Cal. Super. Ct. Aug. 28, 2013) & Morning Star Packing Co., et al. v. CARB, Sacramento Superior Court, Case No. 34-2013-80001464 (Cal. Super. Ct. Aug. 28, 2013) (PDF).
  • California State Budget 2014-15, Cap and Trade Expenditure Plan (link).
  • California Air Resources Board, Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund Program Appropriations Summary Table, 2013-16 (link). 

Tuesday, March 17 – California's Carbon Market: Resource Shuffling

  • Danny Cullenward, How California’s carbon market actually works, 70(5) Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 35-44 (2014) (link).
  • Danny Cullenward, Leakage in California’s Carbon Market 27(9) Electricity Journal 36-48 (2014) (link).

Thursday, March 19 – Washington State Climate Policy

  • Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy (Oct. 28, 2013) (link).
  • Executive Order 14-04, Washington Carbon Pollution Reduction and Clean Energy Action (April 29, 2014) (link).
  • Carbon Emissions Reduction Task Force (CERT), Report to the Washington State Governor’s Office (Nov. 14, 2014), pp. 1-3 (executive summary) (link).
  • Office of Gov. Jay Inslee, selected policy briefs (December 2014) (PDF).
  • David Robers’ interview with Gov. Inslee, Grist.org (Jan. 13, 2015) (link).  

Tuesday, March 31 – Climate Strategy: Policy Evolution and Coordination

  • Danny Cullenward, The Limits of Administrative Law as Regulatory Oversight in Linked Carbon Markets, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy (forthcoming, 2015) (PDF).
    Skip Section III (pp. 17-26), which reviews material you have already seen.
  • Robert O. Keohane and David G. Victor, The Regime Complex for Climate Change, 9 Perspectives on Politics 7-23 (2011) (link).

PART III: Federal Policy

Thursday, April 2 – International Agreements

  • United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) (link).
    Read the entire document, but focus on Article 2. 
  • Review the U.S. commitment under the Copenhagen Accord (link).
  • U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change (Nov. 12, 2014) (link).
  • U.S.-India Joint Statement, "Shared Effort; Progress for All" (Jan. 25, 2015) (link).
    Pay close attention to ¶¶ 43-45. 
  • David G. Victor, The Case for Climate Clubs, ICTSD Working Paper / World Economic Forum (2015) (link). 
  • UNFCCC, Intended National Determined Contributions (INDCs) website (link).
    Skim the process FAQ and note which countries have submitted INDCs.
    • (Optional) U.S. Constitution, Art. II § 2 (link).
    • (Optional) S. Res. 98, 105th Congress (Byrd-Hagel) (1998) (link).
    • (Optional) Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1998) (link).
      Skim the entire document, focusing on the obligations of Annex I countries. Specifically review the commitments under Annex B and note the uniformity of European Community commitments.

Tuesday, April 7 – Federal Carbon Markets

  • Jonas Meckling, The United States: Reimporting Carbon Trading, Chapter 6 in Carbon Coalitions: Business, Climate Politics, and the Rise of Emissions Trading (2011) (pp. 133-66) (link).
  • Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES), Waxman-Markey Short Summary (link).
  • H.R. 2454, The American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, 111th Congress (Waxman-Markey) (link).
    Read the table of contents. How long is the bill? What do each of the Titles do?
  • Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, H.R. 2454 in the 111th Congress (June 23, 2009) (link).
    Skim entire slide deck, but focus on Slides 11, 15, and 17. How did EPA project regulated entities will meet the cap? How were allowances allocated in the bill? What did EPA expect would happen in the electricity sector to meet the cap?

Thursday, April 9 – Federal Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) (Dan Sanchez)

  • Renewable Fuels Association, Renewable Fuel Standard (link).  
  • National Research Council, Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy (2011) (link).
    Note: please read the Executive Summary (pp. 1-12).
  • Selections from Hanna L. Breetz, Fueled by Crisis: U.S. Alternative Fuel Policy, 1975-2007, PhD Dissertation, Department of Political Science, MIT (2013) (PDF).
    Read the abstract (p. 3) and Section VI of Chapter 6 (pp. 268-287). 
    • (Optional) Jeremey Martin, Major Surgery or Physical Therapy? Why Stability, Balance, and Flexibility are the Right Prescription to Put the Renewable Fuel Standard Back on Track, Union of Concerned Scientists blog (Mar. 13, 2015) (link).
    • (Optional) read the Introduction, rest of Chapter 6, and Conclusion in Breetz (2013). 

Tuesday, April 14 – Administrative Actions

  • Center for Biological Diversity v. NHTSA, 538 F.3d 1172 (9th Cir. 2008) (PDF).
  • The President’s Climate Action Plan (Obama Administration) (June 2013) (link). 
    • (Optional) White House Council on Environmental Quality, Revised Draft Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Impacts (Dec. 18, 2014) (link).

Thursday, April 16 – Regulating Greenhouse Gases Under the Clean Air Act: Mobile Sources

  • Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 U.S. 497 (2007) (PDF).
  • Environmental Protection Agency, EPA and NHTSA Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks (April 2010) (link).

Tuesday, April 21 – Clean Air Act: Stationary Sources (PSD Program)

  • Key Clean Air Act provisions: 42 U.S.C. § 7475(a) (link); id. § 7479(1) (link).
  • Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, 134 S.Ct. 2427 (2014) (PDF).
    • (Optional)  Environmental Protection Agency, Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule, 75 Federal Register 31514 (June 3, 2010) (the “tailoring rule”) (link).

 Thursday, April 23 – Clean Air Act: Stationary Sources (§ 111 Regulations) (Guest: David Weiskopf)

  • Key Clean Air Act Provisions: 42 U.S.C. §§ 7411(a)-(d) (link).
  • David Weiskopf, The best-kept secret about the Clean Power Plan: It's not that complicated, NextGen Climate America blog (Jan. 29, 2015) (link).
  • Environmental Protection Agency, Carbon Pollution Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units, 79 Federal Register 34830 (June 18, 2014) (link).
    Read the Executive Summary (Section I.A, pp. 34832-41), the Rule Requirements and Legal Basis (Section IV, pp. 34851-53), and the proposed regulatory text (pp. 34950-58).
    • (Optional) Read the whole 111(d) proposal. 
    • (Optional) Environmental Protection Agency, Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units, 79 Federal Register 1429 (Jan. 8, 2014) (link).

Tuesday, April 28 – Clean Air Act: Comments on 111(d) Regulations

  • Michael Wara, Danny Cullenward, and Rachel Teitelbaum, Peak Electricity and the Clean Power Plan, The Electricity Journal (forthcoming, May 2015) (link).
  • Michael Wara, Adele C. Morris, and Marta R. Darby, How the EPA Should Modify Its Proposed 111(d) Regulations to Allow States to Comply by Taxing Pollution, Brookings Institution Climate and Energy Economics Discussion Paper (Oct. 28, 2014) (link).
  • Mark Hertsgaard, Promises, Promises: Can Obama redeem his environmental failures? Harper’s Magazine (July 2014) (PDF).

Thursday, April 30 – Carbon Taxes / Fee-and-Dividend

  • S. 332, The Climate Protection Act of 2013, 113th Congress (Boxer-Sanders) (link).
  • Clean Energy Canada, How to Adopt a Winning Carbon Price: Top 10 Takeaways from Interviews with the Architects of British Columbia's Carbon Tax (February 2015) (link).
  • George P. Schultz and Gary S. Becker, Why We Support a Revenue-Neutral Carbon Tax, The Wall Street Journal (Apr. 7, 2013) (link) (alt. link).
  • Henry M. Paulson, Jr., The Coming Climate Crash, The New York Times (June 21, 2014) (link). 

Tuesday, May 5 – Class review and synthesis

  • (No reading.)

Thursday, May 7 – No class; good luck with your other exams!